paintings, sculptures, and buildings with overwhelming emotional impact. Baroque Art. Read to Find Out As you read this chapter, learn about Baroque art. THr, SEvEr.{TEENTH Cr,NruRv Emergence of Baroque Art Kenyon, J. P. Stuan York: Penguin, SBB llso:Early 17th cent.: Revenge. Baroque Art. Nature, and Nature's laws lay hid in the night. God said: “Let Newton be!” And all was Light! -Alexander Pope. -Who was Alexander Pope? How is.

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Renaissance and Baroque. Art & Architecture. The Libraries of. Professor Craig Hugh Smyth. Late Director of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York. Baroque was echoed in political revolutions that undermined the traditional cultural art inspired Baroque painters in northern and southern Europe by. Welcome to the third edition of An Introduction to Baroque Art. We hope you enjoy this illustrated journey through a period which produced some of the world' s.

Ground-Plans This conception had a vital effect on the ground-plan - the outlines of the building as seen from above - that came to be adopted.

It led to the rejection of the simple, elementary, analytical plans which were deliberately preferred by Renaissance architects. Their place was taken by complex, rich, dynamic designs, more appropriate to constructions which were no longer thought of as 'built', or created by the union of various parts each with its own autonomy, but rather as hollowed out, shaped from a compact mass by a series of demarcations of contour.

The ground-plans common to the architecture of the Renaissance were the square, the circle, and the Greek cross - a cross, that is, with equal arms. Those typical of Baroque architecture were the ellipse or the oval, or far more complex schemes derived from complicated geometrical figures. Francesco Castelli , better known by the name he adopted for himself, Francesco Borromini , designed a church with a ground-plan in the shape of a bee, in honour of the patron who commissioned it, whose family coat-of-arms featured bees; and another with walls that were throughout alternately convex and concave.

Baroque Architecture's Undulating Motif Besides their complex ground-plans, the resultant curving walls were, therefore, the other outstanding characteristic of Baroque buildings. Not only did they accord with the conception of a building as a single entity, but they also introduced another constant of the Baroque, the idea of movement, into architecture, by its very nature the most static of all the arts.

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And indeed, once discovered, the undulating motif was not confined to walls. The idea of giving movement to an architectural element in the form of more or less regular curves and counter-curves became a dominant motif of all Baroque art.

Interiors were made to curve, from the Church of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane or S. Ivo alla Sapienza by Borromini, his closest rival. So too were facades, as in almost all Borromini's work, in Bernini's plans for the Palais du Louvre in Paris, and typically in the work of Italian, Austrian, and German architects.

Even columns were designed to undulate. Those of Bernini's great baldacchino in the centre of St Peter's in Rome were only the first of a host of spiral columns to be placed in Baroque churches. The Italian architect Guarino Guarini actually evolved, and put to use in some of his buildings, an 'Undulating order', in the form of a complete system of bases, columns, and entablatures distinguished by continuous curves. Even excepting such extremes, during the Baroque period the taste for curves was nonetheless marked, and found further expression in the frequent use of devices including volutes, scrolls, and above all, 'ears' - architectural and ornamental elements in the form of a ribbon curling round at the ends, which were used to form a harmonious join between two points at different levels.

This device was adopted primarily as a feature of church facades, where they were used so regularly as to be now perhaps the readiest way of identifying a Baroque exterior. In spite of their bizarre shape their function was not purely decorative, but principally a strengthening, functional one.

Vaults, Arches, Buttresses The churches of the period were always built with vaulted ceilings. A vault - first seen in Roman architecture and afterwards in Romanesque architecture - is in effect, however, a collection of arches; and since arches tend to exert an outward pressure on their supporting walls, in any vaulted building a counterthrust to this pressure is needed.

The element supplying this counterthrust is the buttress, an especially typical feature in the architecture of the Middle Ages, when the difficulty was first confronted.

To introduce the buttress into a Baroque construction it had to have a form compatible with that of the other members, and to avoid reference to the barbaric, 'gothic' architecture of the past.

This was a problem of some importance in an age enamoured of formal consistency - and it was solved by the use of scrolls. The greatest English architect of the age, Sir Christopher Wren , unable for other reasons to use the convenient scrolls for St Paul's Cathedral, yet having somehow to provide buttresses, made the bold decision to raise the walls of the outer aisles to the height of those of the nave so that they might act as screens, with the sole purpose of concealing the incompatible buttresses.

False ceilings were sometimes painted onto the actual ceiling in a trompe l'oeil manner, using the technique of Quadratura see below. See also works by Wren's predecessor Inigo Jones Compare the austere whitewashed architecture of Dutch Protestant churches, as depicted in the architectural paintings of church interiors by Pieter Saenredam and Emanuel de Witte The Baroque Concept of Building Design: Architectural Sculpture Another, and decisive, consequence of the conception of a building as a single mass to be articulated was that a construction was no longer seen as the sum of individual parts - facade, ground-plan, internal walls, dome, apse, and so on - each one of which might be considered separately.

As a result the traditional rules which determined the planning of these parts became less important or was completely disregarded. For example, for the architects of the Renaissance the facade of a church or a palace had been a rectangle, or a series of rectangles each of which had corresponded to a storey of the building.

For Baroque architects the facade was merely that part of the building that faced outwards, one element of a single entity.

[PDF] Southern Baroque Art: A Study of Painting Architecture and Music in Italy and Spain of

The division into storeys was generally retained, but almost always the central part of the facade was organised with reference more to what was above and below it than to what stood on either side: in other words, it was given a vertical emphasis and thrust which was in strong contrast to the practice of horizontal division by storeys.

Furthermore, in the facade the elements - columns, pilasters, cornices, or pediments - projecting from the wall surface, related in various ways to the centre, which thus came to dominate the sides. Although at first sight such a facade might seem to be divided horizontally, more careful consideration reveals that it is organized vertically, in slices, as it were. In the centre is the more massive, more important section, and the sides, as the eye recedes froth it, appear less weighty.

The final effect is that of a building which has been shaped according to sculptural concepts, rather than put together according to the traditional view of architecture. A Baroque building is complex, surprising, dynamic: for its characteristic features to be fully comprehended, however, or for them to stand out prominently, it needs to catch the light in a particular way.

It was this requirement that led Baroque sculptors to achieve a number of innovations. Architectural Manipulation of Light It is not the light that falls on a particular point in a given building that varies, but the effect the light produces in striking one surface by contrast with another.

It is obvious that the texture of a brick wall is not the same as that of a similar wall of smooth marble or of rough-hewn stone.

This fact was exploited by Baroque architects for both the exteriors and the interiors of their buildings. Renaissance constructions, like many modern ones, were based on simple, elementary proportions and relationships; and their significance rested in the observer's appreciation of the harmony that united the various parts of the whole.

These proportions were perceptible by looking at the fabric alone: all that was required of the light was to make them clearly visible. The ideal effect, sought in almost all the buildings of that period, was that produced by a monochrome, uniform lighting. In place of the appreciation of logic that such an effect implied, Baroque substituted the pursuit of the unexpected, of 'effect', as it would be called in the theatre. And as in the theatre, this is achieved more easily by deployment of light if the light itself is concentrated in one area while others remain in darkness or in shadow - a lesson mastered above all by Caravaggio in Baroque painting.

How can this effect be achieved in architecture? There are various possibilities: by the juxtaposition of strong projections and overhangs with abrupt, deep recesses; or by breaking up the surface, making it unsmooth in some way - to return, for example, to the example used earlier, by altering a marble-clad or plaster-covered wall to one of large, rough stones.

Such requirements of lighting dictated a use in particular for architectonic decoration, the small-scale elements, often carved, which give a effect of movement to the surfaces of a building. It was in the Baroque period above all that such decoration ran riot. In buildings of the Renaissance it had been confined to specific areas, carefully detached from the structural forms. Now, parading the exuberance and fantasy which were its distinguishing characteristic, it invaded every angle, swarmed over every feature, especially corners and points where two surfaces met, where it had the function of concealing the join so that the surfaces of the building appeared to continue uninterrupted.

Undulating Order of Architecture To the five traditional orders of architecture - Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite, each of which had particular forms and proportions for its supporting members, the columns and pilasters, and for the vertical linking members, or entablature - was added the 'Undulating' order.

Another new and popular variant was the 'Colossal order', with columns running up through two or three storeys. The details, too, of the traditional orders became enriched, complicated, modified: entablatures had stronger overhangs and more pronounced re-entrants, and details throughout sometimes attained an almost capricious appearance.

Borromini, for instance, in using the Corinthian order, took its most characteristic feature, the curls, or volutes, which sprout from among the acanthus leaves at the tort of the capital, and inverted them. The arches connecting one column or one pilaster to the next became no longer restricted, as in the Renaissance, to a semi-circle but were often elliptical or oval.

Above all they took the form, unique to the Baroque, of a double curve - describing a curve, that is, not only when seen from in front but also when seen from above.

Sometimes arches were interrupted in form, with sections of straight lines inserted into the curve. This characteristic feature was also used in pediments the decorative element above a door, a window or a whole building.

The canonical shape of a pediment, which is to say that fixed by classical norms, had been either triangular or semi-circular. In the Baroque period, however, they were sometimes open - as though they had been split or interrupted at the top - or combining curved and straight lines; or fantastic, as for example in Guarino Guarini's plan for Palazzo Carignano, where they appeared around doors and windows like draperies rolled back.

Windows too were often far removed from classical forms: to the rectangular or square shapes sometimes with rounded tops, which were typical of the Renaissance were added shapes including ovals or squares topped by a segment of a circle, or rectangles beneath little oval windows.

Other details, on entablatures, doors, and keystones of arches and at corners - everywhere - included volutes; stucco figures; huge, complex, and majestic scrolls; and any number of fantastic and grotesque shapes.

One form of decoration not characteristic so much as striking was the use of the tower. Sometimes a single one, sometimes pairs of them; but always complex and highly decorated, were erected on the facade, and sometimes on the dome, of churches; and in some countries, in particular Austria, Germany, and Spain, this arrangement was used often enough to become in effect the norm.

In England, Blenheim Palace , designed by Sir John Vanbrugh , is one of the most famous examples of solid mass - notably the flanking square towers - being arranged in a supremely confident way.

A trumpet-blast of a building! These, briefly then, were the most obvious and frequently used motifs of Baroque architecture. It must be remembered however that each individual work created its own balance between its various features; and also that each country developed these components in different ways; and an understanding of these regional and national differences is essential to a proper understanding of the Baroque as a whole.

Italian Baroque Architecture Italy, the cradle of Baroque and a key destination of those on the Grand Tour , produced in addition to a proportionate number of good professional architects a quartet who rate as excellent: Bernini, Borromini, Pietro da Cortona , and Guarino Guarini. The work of each was unmistakably Baroque, but each of them had, as it were, a different accent. Bernini and to a lesser extent, Pietro da Cortona, represented the courtly Baroque, majestic, and exuberant but never outrageously so, which was successful principally in the Italian peninsula.

This style possessed, at their most typical, all the features of Baroque described above, and conveyed an air of grandeur and dignity that rendered it a classic of its kind.

Art 259 Midterm 2.pdf - 17th Century Italian baroque art...

These illusionist Baroque paintings went hand in hand with the architecture. For developments in Naples, notably trompe l'oeil architectural frescoes, see: Neapolitan Baroque c.

Bernini and St Peter's Basilica The history of St Peter's - the most important architectural example of Christian art - is in itself a history of the transition from Renaissance to Baroque, and is also a textbook example of Catholic Counter-Reformation Art , in both its structure and surroundings. Soon after the death of Michelangelo , designer of St Peter's dome, Carlo Maderna built a nave which is not altogether a happy feature of the plan, considered as a whole, for every attempt to expand one arm of the central space, as planned by Michelangelo, into a nave, was bound to degrade the miraculous achievement to a mere intersection of nave and transepts.

Behind the facade, over feet in width and feet in height, the dome was concealed up to half the height of the drum. It is true that the eight columns of the entrance, the giant order of pilasters, the massive entablature, and the attic, are as Michelangelo intended.

High Renaissance forms are combined with the exuberance of the Baroque, in a premonition of the coming style. He added a tower to Maderna's facade, but it collapsed and lay about in fragments. No one dared again to subject the foundations to the weight of fresh building. The stumps of the towers were left, rising to the level of the cornice of the attics, unduly widening the facade and destroying the balance of the structure.

But now, as before, the church was to be given a portico. Bernini, in the most ingenious manner, took the opportunity of transforming the disadvantageous widening of Maderna's facade into an improvement. To increase the actual height of the facade was technically impossible, but Bernini, in the true spirit of the Baroque, produced an impression of height by ingeniously misleading the eye.

The open space before the church rose in a slight gradient, and this was crossed by pathways which approached it obliquely, not meeting the facade at right angles, but enclosing an acute angle. This obliquity escapes the casual glance, which unconsciously transfers the smaller distance between the ends of the pathways to their starting-point, so that the facade seems narrower and, owing to the upward slope, also higher than it is in reality. In front of this forecourt, by which the eye is doubly deceived, Bernini now levelled an open space which he enclosed with open colonnades, thereby enhancing the effect of Michelangelo's dome, which had been diminished by the addition of the nave.

Bernini completed his Baroque illusion by enclosing, with his arcades, an oval courtyard, which appears larger than it is in reality.

The eye, expecting to see a circle, transfers the obvious width of the oval to the depth, which is not so great. The colonnades, in their simplicity, play their part by directing the attention to the facade. Baroque architecture of France was more classical and orderly.

In England, Sir Christopher Wren was the prime architect of the period. Baroque sculpture was characterized by movement. The most famous representative was Giovanni Bernini of Italy. He created marble sculptures, designed fountains and made altarpieces.

He also played an important role in rebuilding St. Baroque paintings were famous for their large forms. Italian artists painted the ceilings of churches with massive colourful figures.

Michelangelo Caravaggio was thought to be the first great painter of the baroque era. We worked mainly in Rome, where he painted scenes of the New Testament on large canvases.

He chose biblical stories and put them into modern settings. All of them were huge and expressed dynamic movement.Among the ranks of its artists it numbered several masters of genre painting.

The captain of the company and his Heutenant are Baroque. They showed a wide variety of invention, and were found in all types of buildings, from cathedrals and palaces to small chapels.

The whole which opened on to edifice exemplifies a theatrical conception in the grand it and often trans- style.

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Many of Borromini's ideas were adopted by Guarini, with the addition of a mathematical and technical factor which was of great importance in itself - but even more because of its influence on Baroque architects outside Italy, especially in Germany.

Figures are never depicted in stillness or in attitudes of repose but always in motion. These, briefly then, were the most obvious and frequently used motifs of Baroque architecture. No one dared again to subject the foundations to the weight of fresh building.