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subject of this study is Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the found in the novel are (1) fantasy used to escape from reality, (2) fantasy used to types occurring in both English and Bahasa Indonesia versions. The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels by C. S. Lewis. It is considered a Taking a different stance altogether, Monika B. Hilder provides a thorough examination of the feminine ethos apparent in each book of .. "Some Planets In Narnia: a quantitative investigation of the Planet Narnia thesis" (PDF). were talking about Narnia, which was the name of their own private and secret country. to hear them all talking of Narnia and he loved teasing them about it.

They go back to being children once they get back to their own world, but feature as adults in The Horse and His Boy during their Narnian reign. All four appear in The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe and Prince Caspian; in the latter, however, Aslan tells Peter and Susan that they will not return, as they are getting too old. Asked by a child in if he would please write another book entitled "Susan of Narnia" so that the entire Pevensie family would be reunited, C.

Lewis replied: "I am so glad you like the Narnian books and it was nice of you to write and tell me.

There's no use just asking me to write more. When stories come into my mind I have to write them, and when they don't I can't!

Of all the Pevensie children, Lucy is the closest to Aslan, and of all the human characters who visit Narnia, Lucy is perhaps the one who believes in Narnia the most. In The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe she initiates the story by entering Narnia through the wardrobe, and with Susan witnesses Aslan's execution and resurrection.

She is named Queen Lucy the Valiant. In Prince Caspian she is the first to see Aslan when he comes to guide them. Although a minor character in The Last Battle, much of the closing chapter is seen from her point of view. Instantiating that book's Christian theme of betrayal, repentance, and subsequent redemption via blood sacrifice, he betrays his siblings to the White Witch.

But he quickly realizes her true nature and her evil intentions, and is redeemed by the sacrifice of Aslan's life. He is named King Edmund the Just. She is named Queen Susan the Gentle. In Prince Caspian, however, she is the last of the four to believe and follow Lucy when the latter is called by Aslan to guide them. As an adult queen in The Horse and His Boy she is courted by Prince Rabadash of Calormen but refuses his marriage proposal, and his angry response leads the story to its climax.

In The Last Battle, we are told that she has stopped believing in Narnia and remembers it only as a childhood game. Main article: Peter Pevensie Peter is the eldest of the Pevensies. Aslan names him High King , and he is known as Peter the Magnificent. He is portrayed at first as a brat and a bully, but comes to improve his nasty behaviour when his greed turns him into a dragon for a while. When Lucy tells her three siblings, they don't believe her: Peter and Susan think she is just playing a game while Edmund persistently ridicules her about it.

She is later crowned Queen Lucy the Valiant. Edmund is the second-youngest child. He has a bad relationship with his siblings. Edmund is known to be a liar, and often harasses children younger than him. He often targets Lucy.

Lured by the White Witch's promise of power and an unlimited supply of the magical treats, Edmund betrays his siblings. He later repents, and helps defeat the White Witch, when he is crowned and named King Edmund the Just.

He has no endowments, because of his betrayal. Susan is the second-oldest sibling. She does not believe in Narnia until she actually goes there.

She and Lucy accompany Aslan on the journey to his apparent self-sacrifice. Tending to his carcass, she removes a muzzle from him to restore his dignity and oversees a horde of mice who gnaw away his bonds. She then shares the joy of his resurrection and the endeavor to bring reinforcements to a critical battle. Peter is the eldest sibling.

He judiciously settles disputes between his younger brother and sisters, often rebuking Edmund for his attitude. Peter also disbelieves Lucy's stories about Narnia, until he sees it for himself. He is hailed as a hero for the slaying of Maugrim and for his command in the battle to overthrow the White Witch. At the Country Home The house that shelters the Pevensie children is run by a Professor, staffed by servants, and frequently toured by historians.

The Professor is a kindly old gentleman who takes the children in when they are evacuated from London. He is the first to believe that Lucy did indeed visit a land called Narnia. He tries to convince the others logically that she did not make it up. After the children return from Narnia, he assures them that they will return one day.

The book hints that he knows more of Narnia than he lets on. Narnians The magical land of Narnia is populated by talking animals, mythological species, and sentient flora. Aslan , a lion , is the rightful King of Narnia and other magic countries. He sacrifices himself to save Edmund, but is resurrected in time to aid the denizens of Narnia and the Pevensie children against the White Witch and her minions.

As the "son of the Emperor beyond the sea" an allusion to God the Father , Aslan is the all-powerful creator of Narnia. Lewis revealed that he wrote Aslan as a portrait, although not an allegorical portrait, of Christ. Her spell on Narnia has made winter persist for a hundred years with no end in sight. When provoked, she turns creatures to stone with her wand. She fears the fulfillment of a prophecy that "two sons of Adam and two daughters of Eve" meaning humans; two male, two female will claim the right to rule and supplant her.

She is usually referred to as "the White Witch", or just "the Witch", but her actual name, "Jadis," appears once in this book, in the notice left on Tumnus's door after his arrest.

Lewis later wrote a prequel to include her back-story and account for her presence in the Narnian world. Tumnus , a faun , is the first individual Lucy who calls him "Mr.

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Tumnus" meets in Narnia. Tumnus befriends Lucy, despite the White Witch's standing order to turn in any human he finds. Their father is away and their mother is ill, as is the case with Digory. They manage to transport the queen of ancient Babylon to London and she is the cause of a riot; likewise, Polly and Digory transport Queen Jadis to London, sparking a very similar incident. The Chronicles of Narnia has been a significant influence on both adult and children's fantasy literature in the post-World War II era.

In , the scholar Susan Cornell Poskanzer praised Lewis for his "strangely powerful fantasies". Pullman is a self-described atheist who wholly rejects the spiritual themes that permeate The Chronicles , yet his series nonetheless addresses many of the same issues and introduces some similar character types, including talking animals.

In another parallel, the first books in each series — Pullman's Northern Lights and The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe — both open with a young girl hiding in a wardrobe. Neil Gaiman 's young-adult horror novella Coraline has been compared to The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe , as both books involve young girls travelling to magical worlds through doors in their new houses and fighting evil with the help of talking animals.

His Sandman comic book series also features a Narnia-like "dream island" in its story arc entitled A Game of You. When the island is unmade by its creator Morpheus , the inhabitants march into the shadow of his cloak in a scene visually similar to Aslan 's judgement of the inhabitants of Narnia in The Last Battle. Bill Willingham 's comic book series Fables makes reference at least twice to a king called "The Great Lion", a thinly veiled reference to Aslan.

The series avoids explicitly referring to any characters or works that are not in the public domain. The novel Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson has Leslie, one of the main characters, reveal to Jesse her love of Lewis's books, subsequently lending him The Chronicles of Narnia so that he can learn how to behave like a king.

Her book also features the island name "Terabithia", which sounds similar to Terebinthia , a Narnian island that appears in Prince Caspian and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. Katherine Paterson herself acknowledges that Terabithia is likely to be derived from Terebinthia:. I thought I had made it up. Lewis, I realized that I had probably gotten it from the island of Terebinthia in that book.

However, Lewis probably got that name from the Terebinth tree in the Bible, so both of us pinched from somewhere else, probably unconsciously. Science-fiction author Greg Egan 's short story "Oracle" depicts a parallel universe in which an author nicknamed Jack Lewis's nickname has written novels about the fictional "Kingdom of Nesica", and whose wife is dying of cancer, paralleling the death of Lewis's wife Joy Davidman. Several Narnian allegories are also used to explore issues of religion and faith versus science and knowledge.

Lev Grossman 's New York Times best-seller The Magicians is a contemporary dark fantasy about an unusually gifted young man obsessed with Fillory, the magical land of his favourite childhood books.

Fillory is a thinly veiled substitute for Narnia, and clearly the author expects it to be experienced as such. Not only is the land home to many similar talking animals and mythical creatures, it is also accessed through a grandfather clock in the home of an uncle to whom five English children are sent during World War II.

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Moreover, the land is ruled by two Aslan-like rams named Ember and Umber, and terrorised by The Watcherwoman. She, like the White Witch, freezes the land in time. The book's plot revolves heavily around a place very like the "wood between the worlds" from The Magician's Nephew , an interworld waystation in which pools of water lead to other lands. This reference to The Magician's Nephew is echoed in the title of the book. Rowling , author of the Harry Potter series, has said that she was a fan of the works of Lewis as a child, and cites the influence of The Chronicles on her work: A lot of the humour comes from collisions between the magic and the everyday worlds.

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Generally there isn't much humour in the Narnia books, although I adored them when I was a child. I got so caught up I didn't think CS Lewis was especially preachy. Reading them now I find that his subliminal message isn't very subliminal. The comic book series Pakkins' Land by Gary and Rhoda Shipman in which a young child is finds himself in a magical world filled with talking animals, including a lion character named King Aryah, has been compared favorably to the Narnia series. The Shipmans have cited the influence of C.

Lewis and the Narnia series in response to reader letters. As with any popular long-lived work, contemporary culture abounds with references to the lion Aslan, travelling via wardrobe and direct mentions of The Chronicles.

Examples include:. Charlotte Staples Lewis , a character first seen early in the fourth season of the TV series Lost , is named in reference to C. Lost producer Damon Lindelof said that this was a clue to the direction the show would take during the season. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe at a cinema. It was described by Slate magazine as one of the most culturally significant Saturday Night Live skits in many years, and an important commentary on the state of rap.

During interviews, the primary creator of the Japanese anime and gaming series Digimon has said that he was inspired and influenced by The Chronicles of Narnia. Lewis is acknowledged in the liner notes as an influence.

A convert to Christianity in later life, Lewis had authored a number of works on Christian apologetics and other literature with Christian-based themes before writing the Narnia books. The character Aslan is widely accepted by literary academia as being based on Jesus Christ.

Lewis maintained that the Narnia books were not allegorical, preferring to term their Christian aspects a "supposition". The Chronicles have, consequently, a large Christian following, and are widely used to promote Christian ideas. However, some Christians object that The Chronicles promote "soft-sell paganism and occultism" due to recurring pagan imagery and themes. In later years, both Lewis and the Chronicles have been criticised often by other authors of fantasy fiction for gender role stereotyping, though other authors have defended Lewis in this area.

For example, Lucy gets a healing potion and a dagger, while Peter gets a sword. Most allegations of sexism centre on the description of Susan Pevensie in The Last Battle when Lewis writes that Susan is "no longer a friend of Narnia" and interested "in nothing nowadays except nylons and lipstick and invitations".

Philip Pullman , inimical to Lewis on many fronts, calls the Narnia stories "monumentally disparaging of women". Susan, like Cinderella , is undergoing a transition from one phase of her life to another. Lewis didn't approve of that. He didn't like women in general, or sexuality at all, at least at the stage in his life when he wrote the Narnia books. He was frightened and appalled at the notion of wanting to grow up. In fantasy author Neil Gaiman 's short story "The Problem of Susan" , [83] [84] an elderly woman, Professor Hastings, deals with the grief and trauma of her entire family's death in a train crash.

Although the woman's maiden name is not revealed, details throughout the story strongly imply that this character is the elderly Susan Pevensie. The story is written for an adult audience and deals with issues of sexuality and violence and through it Gaiman presents a critique of Lewis's treatment of Susan.

Other writers, including fan-magazine editor Andrew Rilstone , oppose this view, arguing that the "lipsticks, nylons and invitations" quote is taken out of context. They maintain that in The Last Battle , Susan is excluded from Narnia explicitly because she no longer believes in it.

At the end of The Last Battle Susan is still alive with her ultimate fate unspecified. Moreover, in The Horse and His Boy , Susan's adulthood and sexual maturity are portrayed in a positive light, and therefore argued to be unlikely reasons for her exclusion from Narnia. Alan Jacobs, an English professor at Wheaton College, asserts that Lucy is the most admirable of the human characters and that generally the girls come off better than the boys throughout the series Jacobs, The characters have positive and negative things to say about both male and female characters, suggesting an equality between sexes.

However, the problem is that many of the positive qualities of the female characters seem to be those by which they can rise above their femininity The superficial nature of stereotypical female interests is condemned. Taking a different stance altogether, Monika B. As she puts it " To the extent that we have not examined our own chauvinism, we demean the "feminine" qualities and extol the "masculine" - not noticing that Lewis does the opposite.

In addition to sexism, Pullman and others have also accused the Narnia series of fostering racism. It's just too dreadful. While the book's storytelling virtues are enormous, you don't have to be a bluestocking of political correctness to find some of this fantasy anti- Arab , or anti-Eastern, or anti- Ottoman.

With all its stereotypes, mostly played for belly laughs, there are moments you'd like to stuff this story back into its closet. Gregg Easterbrook , writing in The Atlantic , calls the Calormenes "standins for Muslims", [91] while novelist Philip Hensher raises specific concerns that a reader might gain the impression Islam is a "Satanic cult". Lewis conference, [93] Dr. Devin Brown argued that there are too many dissimilarities between the Calormene religion and Islam, particularly in the areas of polytheism and human sacrifice, for Lewis's writing to be regarded as critical of Islam.

Nicholas Wanberg has argued, echoing claims by Mervyn Nicholson, that accusations of racism in the books are "an oversimplification", but he asserts that the stories employ beliefs about human aesthetics, including equating dark skin with ugliness, that have been traditionally associated with racist thought.

Critics also argue whether Lewis's work presents a positive or negative view of colonialism. Nicole DuPlessis favors the anticolonial view, claiming "the negative effects of colonial exploitations and the themes of animals' rights and responsibility to the environment are emphasized in Lewis' construction of a community of living things. Through the negative examples of illegitimate rulers, Lewis constructs the 'correct' relationship between humans and nature, providing examples of rulers like Caspian who fulfill their responsibilities to the environment.

Various books from The Chronicles of Narnia have been adapted for television over the years, including:. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was first adapted in Comprising ten episodes of thirty minutes each, the screenplay was written by Trevor Preston , and directed by Helen Standage. Unlike subsequent adaptations, it is currently unavailable to download for home viewing.

Winner of the Emmy award for Outstanding Animated Program , it was one of the first major made-for-television feature-length animated films. Many of the characters' voices in the British TV release were re-recorded by British actors with the exception of the characters Aslan, Peter, Susan, and Lucy.

Between and , the first four books as published were adapted by the BBC as four television serials. On 3 October , the C. Lewis Company announced that Netflix had acquired the rights to new film and series adaptations of the Narnia books. Collectively titled Tales of Narnia , the programs covered the entire series with a running time of approximately 15 hours.

Between and Focus on the Family produced radio dramatisations of the entire series through its Radio Theatre program. Accompanied by an original orchestral score and cinema-quality digital sound design, the series was hosted by Lewis's stepson Douglas Gresham and ran for just over 22 hours.

Recordings of the entire adaptation were released on compact disc between — Many stage adaptations of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe have been produced over the years. The production was later revived at Westminster and The Royalty Theatre and went on tour until In , Trumpets Inc. The novel was adapted as a musical production by Adrian Mitchell, with music by Shaun Davey.


Well received by audiences, the production was periodically re-staged by the RSC for several years afterwards. This adaptation also toured the United States in the early s. Sceptical that any cinematic adaptation could render the more fantastical elements and characters of the story realistically, Lewis never sold the film rights to the Narnia series.

Lewis wrote back: Humanized beasts can't be presented to the eye without at once becoming either hideous or ridiculous. I wish the idiots who run the film world [would] realize that there are stories [which] are for the ear alone. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe released in December In December Disney pulled out of financing the remainder of the Chronicles of Narnia film series.

Lewis Estate had expired, and that there was a moratorium on producing any Narnia films outside of Walden Media. The Silver Chair. This was updated in November to indicate these plans had been halted now that Netflix had begun developing adaptations of the entire series. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Narnia disambiguation. This article is about the book series.

For the film series, see The Chronicles of Narnia film series. Main article: Prince Caspian. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The Horse and His Boy. The Magician's Nephew. The Last Battle. Further information: List of The Chronicles of Narnia characters. Lucy Pevensie. Edmund Pevensie. Susan Pevensie. Peter Pevensie.

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Eustace Scrubb. Jill Pole. Digory Kirke. Polly Plummer. Caspian X. Shasta Narnia. Bree Narnia. White Witch. Lady of the Green Kirtle. Shift Narnia. Narnia world. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: See also: Narnian places.

Religion in The Chronicles of Narnia. Adaptations of The Chronicles of Narnia. The Chronicles of Narnia film series. Narnia portal Children's literature portal. The Telegraph. BBC News. A Biography: On Stories: And Other Essays on Literature. Companion to Narnia: Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia Revised ed. San Francisco: Eight Children in Narnia: The Making of a Children's Story. Chicago, IL: Open Court.

Retrieved 22 September Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 6 September Eerdmans, , p Marjorie Lamp Mead, ed. Letters to Children. USA Today. Retrieved 21 September Reading with the Heart: The Way into Narnia.A variety of methods are used to initiate these cross-overs which generally serve to introduce characters to the land of Narnia.

Colin Mackadoo. At a second war council, they decided to wind Queen Susan's horn, in the hopes that it would bring help, whether Aslan or the fabled Kings and Queens of Narnia's Golden Age. Lewis later suggested that the experience gave him a new appreciation of children and in late September [9] he began a children's story on an odd sheet that has survived as part of another manuscript: This book is about four children whose names were Ann, Martin, Rose and Peter.

They are drawn back by the power of Susan's horn, blown by Prince Caspian to summon help in his hour of need. He is portrayed at first as a brat and a bully, but comes to improve his nasty behaviour when his greed turns him into a dragon for a while.