PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . The applications of research. Types of research. The research journey . The research process. The chapters in the book in relation to the. book is an essential text for anyone coming to research for the first time, and is widely and index. [etc.] 1. Social sciences—Research—Methodology. 2.
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PDF | The book is essential for student, scholars, Researchers, teachers and professionals in all fields of study where research is required for academic. of various chapters for the benefit of students, and (iii) every page of the book has been read Research Methodology in all disciplines of various universities. Kothari, C.R.,, Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques, New Delhi,. Wiley Eastern .. completion of a work and publication in the form of a book.
Adoption of appropriate methodology is an essential characteristic of quality research studies irrespective of the discipline with which they are related.
The present book provides the basic tenets of methodological research so that researchers may become familiar with the art of using research methods and techniques. The book contains introductory explanations of several quantitative methods enjoying wide use in social sciences. It covers a fairly wide range, related to Research Methodology. The presentations are uniformly economical and cogent. Illustrations given are meaningful and relevant. The book can be taken as a well-organised guide for researchers whose methodological background is not extensive.
The book is primarily intended to serve as a textbook for social science students of all Indian universities. Another character of planning is to impose control over the situation and lever to enhance those set of controls. In comparison bad research designs are also pointed where biases can be induced, lacking adequacy to support hypothesis, measurements and techniques are included.
Validity of methodology is taken in account methodology is defined by webster as a scientific arrangement, internal validity control , and external validity sampling.
Principles of Research Methodology
Control validity refers to the variables and their erroneous relationship while external validity refers to the representation of sampling and its correlation with internal validity. Definition of sampling as a technique to research, its significance because of limitation to not able to study whole population, being an economic approach and collecting nearly accurate desired results by randomizing the sample is conferred. Sampled chunk of population is one with insurance that selection of one may not affect other.
Methods of sampling, its limitations and types are also added to vest the very idea of quantitative research and its understanding to researchers. Sample designs such as probability sampling and systematic sampling, their subtypes, pros and cons are elaborated by author. Multiple sampling, multi-stage, purposive and quota sampling are other types of sampling and opted as per nature of research to be conducted.
A Guide for Clinical Investigators
Errors that could be minimized are also pointed out. Sizing a sample and its reliability is a debate to be pondered upon. Author narrated the notion clearly for readers understanding and utility in historical and experimental types of researches are also stated with examples. Survey Method Moving on to the next step of research, methodology, specific to quantitate one is possible through survey.
Along this he also provided definitions by other authors, such as, M. Verma, Webster and Broudy. All of them define it as distinguished element of research and matter is necessary to determine the appropriate methodology. Here, term matter is classified into three heads such as Theoretical problem which requires surveys and experimental method, factual problems opting for historical and genetic methods or case studies and finally application problem and action research as its method of finding.
A method comprises of tactics and strategies, orderliness and regularity forming a structure. Also refers to the structural approach of data collection and means or devices. Furthermore, strategy is defined in terms of a military approach and usage of terminology in academic research, named as research strategy.
Procedure embraces five steps, first to observe a phenomenon and in sighting, second to identify the problem, third to develop and implement study design, fourth is analyzing and testing third step, and final one as conclusion.
Certain assumptions necessary for scientific methods and its usage are discussed to recognize the need of assumptions and postulates etc. In addition, types of research methods are provided by George J.
Mouly, in three categories as survey, historical and action methods. Implications of survey methods are it only study the phenomenon under study and it is further classified into four types, as, Descriptive, analytical, School survey and Genetic.
These types are further divided into sub-types to furnish a detailed image of typology a choice of right method for a research. Similarly, historical method is classified into three types as historical, legal and documentary. It is to study past and connect it with present prospect. Likewise, experimental method is to analyze the relation between means of prediction and controlling occurrences and its sub- divide is in four categories. Author also provided another type of classification to examine the phenomenon, which is longitudinal and cross-sectional approach, comprising of same methodologies discussed above.
These groupings of methods are to map the means and their usage in a particular research. Purpose of survey method is to access direct source of preliminary knowledge concerning behavior and patterns of humans as more controlling and objective methodology for a research.
Thus, answering what exists, what we want and how to get it. Beside this, a distinction between descriptive and analytical method is presented by author in this chapter, with reference to other types of researches. This explanation demarcated the divide among other types of researches and their usage to survey method and its nature. Later on, social problems of surveys are discussed, regarding sampling size and validation in measuring a trend.
Three basic types of surveys as, survey tests, questionnaire and interviews are elaborated with their pros and cons and characteristics in details. To prove the adequacy, follow-up studies are conducted which is itself evaluation of study.
Author illustrated these types of survey with examples to educational systems and its problems. Historical Method By reviewing this chapter, why past is studied, what is history, its meaning and definition, purpose and types, approaches to study it and its limitations are understood. Further chapter comprises of functions of history and steps to interpret it in academic forms and criticism of history are narrated in an orderly manner to empower a historical researcher. Definitions of history are provided by different historians and writers; such as by M.
Verma, A. N White Head, Bernard Shaw. Various definitions state that history is mean of aiding society in understanding its current organization, structure and functions and transformation process. History lies purpose of recording human progress and providing direction of that progress with a scale to measure the speed of our development.
Composition of history is a constructive process which answers the past problems and stance of humans on selection and understanding these problems and its documentation-Good and Scates. Answering the question of what is historical research, author related it to scientific method of acquiring facts about past problems, its relation and evaluation to current scenario and future.
Whereas purpose of historical research lies in having a vivid perspective of past in present and a desire to reach at accurate account of past. In addition to this, author of book provided us with approaches to conduct historical researches by two approaches, named as perspective and retrospective approach. Former one is to study events from past to present while later one is contrary, studying present to past.
Reviewing sources of historical research, we came to know that collection of data through primary sources such as documents and relics etc. Similarly, criticism of data and its presentation also allow researchers to better understanding.
Later on, types of historical researchers are classified on the basis of approaches, subject matter and techniques.
Procedure and steps taken in account in historical researches are mentioned by writer, comprising of identification of problem, collection of data and its criticism. Criticism here is in two steps as well, one is internal and other is external and both are to authorize the data but first one deals with authenticity of material itself while other is to verify the genuineness of content it contains.
Later in this chapter writer peeks into presentation of data in chronological and theme wise order and dealing of a researcher with its unbiased and continuous interpretation of history by bridging gaps. Making sense out of multitude of factual data collected by researcher is the purpose of historical researches. In writing historical report, objectivity is emphasized.
Examples of historical researches in educational background are provided with problems in past and present and its significance as a source of comparison of time. But there are also limitations to this type of researches such as hindering objectivity, difficult to manifest cause and effect relations, researcher must stand at a special historical perspective and this method is at decline due to use of scientific methods in social sciences.
Philosophical Method Author of book has attempted to provide an outline of philosophic methods to research in this chapter. Starting from its meaning, need, scope, methods and assumptions, procedure and its relation with education is discussed in this chapter of book. Author tried to establish that what is philosophy and how philosophical method and researches act as building blocks of theory and knowledge. Meaning of philosophy is defined by famous Emmanuel Kant to seek intangible conditions of possibility.
While author analyze it with Indian word Darshan, means seeing, in larger perspective it is viewing the reality. He also tried to establish the construct by telling what is not philosophy and confer that it is disciplined and logical study of universe and experience, could be called supra natural. Its need is defined as well, by Martian, a philosopher stating that it is utmost necessity of human beings and its purpose is to study the ultimate preposition such as existence, life, death, happiness etc.
In other words, it is a thought process which lack practical utility but it offers endless scope of research and coexist with human and life. Philosophy of education is highlighted by author as principles and facts applied to the educational dynamics and so did Adams.
John Dewy consider this relation as vice versa, he narrated that philosophy is principles of life but education is its practical implementation and education is the only way by which philosophy is made practical. Pondering upon scope and limitations of philosophical methods to research, two approaches are significant in regard.
Quantitative and qualitative approach and these are illustrated by author through an example of series of questions that how mathematics should be thought and what are effective ways of doing so where he stated that former one is quantitative while latter one is qualitative.
These constructs act as foundation of education. Although its implications are not same to historical methods but still two prominent problems exist, first to ascribe system of thoughts to nations or community at certain time period, second criticism of ideas of great personage. Another significant underlying limitation is that, this type of research only depends on the availability of authentic source material.
1.1 Meaning and Definition of Research
Whereas techniques to this type offers freedom to researcher and use knowledge and its analysis. So, it is evident that it is confined to consult library and analyze content available but require familiarity of researcher with major school of thoughts of philosophy.
And primary tool is logic itself. Procedures are little different from other types of research, as it embraces themes, aims, reporting and list of references upon which whole debate is constructed and argued. And at the ending of chapter, comparison between historical and philosophical methods are demonstrated by author in form of table, in order to demarcate the porous divide. Experimental Method Writer start from realizing readers that experimental method is scientific method in which experimenter consider the situation being researched never existed.
Method is defined by quoting definitions of several authors such as Jahoda who related term to test hypothesis, F. Chapin denoted it with observation under controlled environment, W. Monro and M. Engelhart expressed it as type of research where variables are controlled and John W.
Best, Festinger, Ernest and Greenwood all state the same phenomenon in other words. Law of single variable is narrated as experimental method which is supposed to be the basic assumption of this methodology by J.
Mill, stating that one variable is either added or subtracted from other to get results. How experimental method is enumerated in research and how its controlling factor and characteristics play a vital role in tailoring a research phenomenon is described by author in form of points with examples to educational research and how this method is attributed in real- time scenario.
Nine steps of experimental methods are discussed, which differ from other forms by its experimental design and measurement of outcomes, while rest of steps are same as other methods discussed in forth mentioned chapter.
In addition, procedures and classification of those actions are elaborated, however writer focused more on rotational groups procedure and its types. Reviewing this chapter will provide an understanding of this type of research although it is not generally opted in social sciences domain but to confer the phenomenon it can be used. Case Study Method Review of this methodology of research distinguishes the case study method from other methods such as philosophical, experimental and survey methods etc.
And state that it is conducted for specific purposes and draw subjective results rather than objective.
It means to study in depth, a phenomenon, in its smallest unit. For instance, an individual or a family or an institute etc. Term also refers to the clinical study or cumulative study, done with reference to past records and establishing cause and effect relation. It is conducted in three steps as retrospective, prospective and conceptive, referring to past, present and future respectively. There are six different types of case studies discussed in details with examples, categorized as group study, comparative, trend and follow-up study, activity or content analysis.
Sources of case data collected to examine is also mentioned in regards; Personal documents, relevant personals, official records and subject itself. As it raises number of other issues which are not presented by other methods but it follows same step trail as any other research, limited in collecting data from only forth mentioned sources and comprises of follow up program. Aspects to study groups, institutions and its limitations are discussed in later half of the chapter. A comparative analysis of this technique with other methods are presented and visualized by a number of differing facets in table form.
Validity may be classified into different types, as described below. The degree of validity of each type is determined by applying logic, statistical procedures or both.
Content validity: This type of validity may be of two types a Face validity and b Sampling validity. Face validity is determined through a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale. For example, a researcher may develop a scale to measure consumer attitudes towards a brand and pre-test the scale among a few experts. If the experts are satisfied with the scale, the researcher may conclude that the scale has face validity.
However, the limitation of this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions, rather than through a statistical method. Sampling validity refers to how representative the content of the measuring instrument is.
Table of Contents
In other words, the measuring instruments content must be representative of the content universe of the characteristic being measured. For example, if attitude is the characteristic being measured, its content universe may comprise statements and questions indicating which aspects of attitude need to be measured. In this case, sampling validity will be determined by comparing the items in the measuring instrument with the items in the content universe.
Sampling validity, like face validity, is also based on the judgment and subjective evaluation of both the researcher and outside experts. The determination of the content universe and the selection of the relevant items that are to be included in the measuring scale are both done based on the knowledge and skill of the investigator and other judges.
Predictive validity: This type of validity refers to the extent to which one behavior can be predicted based on another, based on the association between the results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual outcome.
Example In the case of an admission test designed for prospective MBA students, the predictive validity of the test would be determined by the association between the scores on the test and the grade point average secured by students during the first semester of study.
A statistical measure of this association the correlation coefficient could be computed to determine the predictive validity of the admission test.
Predictive validity would be strong if the coefficient is greater than. One limitation of determining predictive validity using this statistical association is that the eventual outcome, in this case, the grade point average of students during the first semester, may be influenced by other extraneous variables or factors.
In other words, the grade point average may have been influenced by other factors e. Therefore, predicting behavior from one situation to another is not always accurate. Construct validity: A construct is a conceptual equation that is developed by the researcher based on theoretical reasoning.
Various kinds of relationships may be perceived by the researcher between a variable under study and other variables. These relationships must be tested in order to determine the construct validity of a measuring instrument.
The instrument may be considered to have construct validity only if the expected relationships are found to be true. When determining the validity of a particular measurement instrument, all the three types of validity discussed above should be determined. To give a simple example, a weighing machine may be said to be reliable if the same reading is given every time the same object is weighed.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Stability refers to consistency of results with repeated measurements of the same object, as in the weighing machine example. Non variability refers to consistency at a given point of time among different investigators and samples of items.
The problem of reliability is more likely to arise with measurements in the social sciences than with measurements in the physical sciences, due to factors such as poor memory or recall of respondents, lack of clear instructions given to respondents and irrelevant contents of the measuring instrument. Reliability can be improved in three ways 1 By reducing the external sources of variation.
This in turn can be achieved by standardizing the conditions under which measurement is carried out, by employing trained investigators and by providing standard instructions.
The desired level of reliability depends on the research objectives, as well as the homogeneity of the population under study. If precise estimates are required, the higher will be the desired level of accuracy.
In the case of a homogeneous population, a lower level of reliability may be sufficient, since there is not much variation in the data. Reliability and validity are closely interlinked. A measuring instrument that is valid is always reliable, but the reverse is not true. That is, an instrument that is reliable is not always valid. However, an instrument that is not valid may or may not be reliable and an instrument that is not reliable is never valid.
Self Assessment Questions Are the following statements true or false? Research is concerned with the measurement of objects. A persons emotions may be directly observed.
The most powerful level of measurement is ratio measurement. Linearity means that the measuring scale should not measure more than one characteristic at a time. The problem of extraneous variables arises in the case of construct validity. Validity is determined mainly by predictive validity. Validity and reliability do not always go together. Different research situations require different levels of reliability.
It refers to the assignment of numerals to objects in order to measure the characteristics or properties of objects. Measurement facilitates the verification of hypotheses, helps to quantify variables, makes data suitable for statistical analysis and enables comparison between objects in terms of specific characteristics. Measurement may be classified into four different levels, based on three characteristics order, distance and origin.
The lowest level of measurement is nominal measurement and involves assigning numerals or labels to different categories of a variable. The next level is ordinal measurement in which objects are rank ordered with respect to a specific characteristic.
The interval level of measurement has the characteristics of order, distance and equality of interval but no origin. The highest level of measurement is ratio measurement which is suitable for measuring properties which have an absolute zero point. It permits the use of advanced statistical techniques to analyze the data.
The characteristics of good measurement are uni-dimensionality, linearity, validity, reliability, accuracy, precision, simplicity and practicability. Validity refers to how effective an instrument is in measuring a property which it intends to measure. There are three types of validity content validity, predictive validity and construct validity. Content validity may be of two types face validity and sampling validity. Face validity is determined by a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale.
Sampling validity refers to the extent to which the measuring instruments content is representative of the content universe of the characteristic being Sikkim Manipal University Page No.
The main limitation of content validity is that it is determined in a subjective manner, rather than through a statistical method.In this edition a new chapter The Computer: Similarly, criticism of data and its presentation also allow researchers to better understanding.
By studying this table, drawn at the end of first chapter, one can plan a project and by simply following these steps and conduct a research to add or delete from knowledge. A general format of thesis is furnished with an example where headings are mentioned in systematic and orderly form.
Toggle navigation. Hutchins and several other. Is its summary effectively produced? Methods of sampling, its limitations and types are also added to vest the very idea of quantitative research and its understanding to researchers.
Aspects to study groups, institutions and its limitations are discussed in later half of the chapter. Unidimensionality This means that the measurement scale should not measure more than one characteristic at a time.
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